Fish sperm light emitting diode
For reproduction, most fish species adopt external fertilization: their spermatozoa are delivered in the external milieu marine- or freshwater that represents both a drastic environment and a source of signals that control the motility function. This chapter is an updated overview of the signaling pathways going from external signals such as osmolarity and ionic concentration and their membrane reception to their transduction through the membrane and their final reception at the flagellar axoneme level. Additional factors such as energy management will be addressed as they constitute a limiting factor of the motility period of fish spermatozoa. Modern technologies used nowadays for quantitative description of fish sperm flagella in movement will be briefly described as they are more and more needed for prediction of the quality of sperm used for artificial propagation of many fish species used in aquaculture.
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Light emitting diodes LEDs are a general source of continuous light with a high luminescence efficiency, and are based on the general properties of a simple twin-element semiconductor diode encased in a clear epoxy dome that acts as a lens. This interactive tutorial explores how two dissimilar doped semiconductors can produce light when a voltage is applied to the junction region between the materials. The tutorial initializes with a simple doped semiconductor p-n junction connected to a direct current DC voltage source a D-cell battery appearing in the window. The default p-type semiconductor material is doped gallium aluminum arsenide GaAlAs , while the n-type semiconductor layered onto the substrate is composed of doped gallium arsenide GaAs. Between the two doped semiconductors is an Active Layer that exists in an equilibrium state without light being emitted when no voltage is applied to the diode junction. At initialization, the voltage applied to the junction is 2 volts an arbitrary setting , and holes from the p-doped semiconductor region GaAlAs meet electrons from the n-doped region GaAs in the Active Layer to produce infrared light.
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Invasion of the monogamous fish
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Their findings show that releasing just one or two fish into the wild may be enough to trigger an aquatic invasion. In a paper published this month in the journal BMC Ecology researchers from the University of St Andrews tested whether forcing female guppies to be monogamous would impede their ability to establish viable populations. The guppy Poecilia reticulata is a successful invasive species throughout the tropics.
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